Received 12 July 2018, Revised 29 April 2019, Accepted 19 May 2019, Available online 1 June 2019.
- •Cotton production in SSA causes a number of environmental sustainability challenges.
- •Voluntary certification programs aim to influence corporate conduct along supply chains.
- •The EU Organic Standard is most ambitious in addressing NGOs’ environmental demands.
- •NGOs risk contributing to ‘greenwashing’ when participating in less ambitious programs.